La bataille de Marathon : première guerre Médique.

 La bataille de Marathon

En 490 av. J.C l'armée Perse attaqua les Grecs dans la baie de Marathon, à une quarantaine de kilomètres d'Athènes. Une bataille impressionnante : selon les textes les Perses étaient 100 000. Mais les historiens s'accordent à dire qu'ils étaient plutôt 20 000.

A Athènes, Miltiade, l'un des dix stratèges (chefs militaires) de la cité, décida de ne pas attendre les Perses, mais de se rendre à leur rencontre. La cité de Platées apporta son soutien en envoyant 1000 hommes aux côtés de 9000 soldats Athéniens. Très peu comparés au nombre de soldats Perses.

La bataille eut lieu le 13 septembre -490, au lever du jour. Les Grecs, inférieur en nombre, avaient choisi d'étaler leur ligne de front : pour cela, ils étaient obligés de dégarnir le centre, pour renforcer les ailes (les côtés). Miltiade avait élaboré une stratégie déroutante : foncer au pas de course vers les camp adverse, pour le surprendre et éviter les flèches de leurs archers. Les Perses furent prit d'une panique totale et beaucoup fuirents vers la mer alors que les autres furent tués.

Les Athéniens avaient gagné !

La bataille de Marathon fit 192 morts du côté grec et 6400 chez les Perses !

La légende de Philipidès.

On raconte que dès la bataille terminée, Miltiade envoya un messagé, Philipidès, annoncer leur victoire à Athènes. Arrivé sur la place publique, Philipidès eut juste le temps de dire "Nenikamen", ce qui signifie : nous avons gagné, avant de mourir d'épuisement. Pour tout dire il avait couru pendant 40 kilomètres, sans arrêt ! Depuis, en souvenir de son exploit, une course de 40 kilomètres est organisé aux jeux Olympiques? (Depuis les jeux Olympiques de Londres en 1908 la distance du marathon est exactement de 42, 195 kilomètres.

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